# Response to spss discussion question

Confidence Interval

The quantitative variable of interest chosen for this discussion is the continuous variable “Highest Year of school completed”. This variable has been calculated, measured and analyzed by using the SPSS as statistical toll to see the trends and the differences when the confidence interval changes from 90% to 95%, as well as the size of sample change (100 and 400).

Random sample of 100

The confidence interval of the 100 sample of the total population (2538) responded to this data at:

• 90% is 13.20 for the Lower Bound and 14.24 for the upper Bound (figure 2).
• 95% is 12.83 for the Lower Bound and 14.11 for the upper Bound (figure 3).

The mean of 100 sample of this variable at 90% of confidence interval is 13.72 and at the 95% is 13.47.

The standard deviation of this variable at 90% confidence interval is 3.150, and at 95% of confidence interval is 3.239.

 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation HIGHEST YEAR OF SCHOOL COMPLETED 100 6 20 13.72 2.854 Valid N (listwise) 100

Figure 1: Random sample of 100

 Descriptives Statistic Std. Error HIGHEST YEAR OF SCHOOL COMPLETED Mean 13.72 .315 90% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 13.20 Upper Bound 14.24 5% Trimmed Mean 13.79 Median 14.00 Variance 9.921 Std. Deviation 3.150 Minimum 2 Maximum 20 Range 18 Interquartile Range 4 Skewness -.415 .241 Kurtosis 1.376 .478

Figure 2: 90% confidence interval of 100 random sample.

 Descriptives Statistic Std. Error HIGHEST YEAR OF SCHOOL COMPLETED Mean 13.47 .324 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 12.83 Upper Bound 14.11 5% Trimmed Mean 13.56 Median 13.00 Variance 10.494 Std. Deviation 3.239 Minimum 3 Maximum 20 Range 17 Interquartile Range 4 Skewness -.351 .241 Kurtosis .602 .478

Figure 3: 95% confidence interval of 100 random sample.

Random sample of 400

The confidence interval of the 400 sample of the total population (2538) responded to this data at:

• 90% is 13.58 for the Lower Bound and 14.08 for the upper Bound (figure 6).
• 95% is 13.54 for the Lower Bound and 14.11 for the upper Bound (figure 5).

The mean of 400 sample of this variable at both 90% and 95% of confidence intervals is 13.83. The standard deviation of this variable at 90% and 95% of confidence intervals is 2.983.

 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation HIGHEST YEAR OF SCHOOL COMPLETED 400 0 20 13.62 3.076 Valid N (listwise) 400

Figure 4:  Random sample of 400

 Descriptives Statistic Std. Error HIGHEST YEAR OF SCHOOL COMPLETED Mean 13.83 .149 95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 13.54 Upper Bound 14.12 5% Trimmed Mean 13.86 Median 14.00 Variance 8.898 Std. Deviation 2.983 Minimum 0 Maximum 20 Range 20 Interquartile Range 4 Skewness -.382 .122 Kurtosis 1.854 .243

Figure 5: 95% confidence interval of 400 random sample.

 Descriptives Statistic Std. Error HIGHEST YEAR OF SCHOOL COMPLETED Mean 13.83 .149 90% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 13.58 Upper Bound 14.08 5% Trimmed Mean 13.86 Median 14.00 Variance 8.898 Std. Deviation 2.983 Minimum 0 Maximum 20 Range 20 Interquartile Range 4 Skewness -.382 .122 Kurtosis 1.854 .243

Figure 6: 90% confidence interval of 400 random sample.

Based on the descriptive statistics of the chosen variable for this discussion, and all figures presented in this page, the confidence interval knows some very minimal changes and is impacted by the size of the sample and the confidence interval levels (90% and 95%). Also I noticed that the confidence interval at 95% for upper bound 14.11 remained the same. When the random sample increased from 100 to 400, the standard deviation decreased from 3.150 at 90% and 3.239 at 95% to 2.983.

Regarding the statement, “Confidence intervals are underutilized”, majority of student or professionals do not take into account the sample size of the population or they misuse it. Sample size estimation is based on scientific calculation and confidence level to obtain or achieve a certain level of confidence and accuracy of the data that represents the reality or describe the studied subject in a concrete manner. The implications that may occur when not using the confidence intervals will be related to validity and reliability of the research and data presented, witch may raise lot of questions of the integrity of the researcher.

Note: I am attaching the response for this discussion in word document in case the table are not shown in this discussion space.

Reference

Frankfort-Nachmias, C., & Leon-Guerrero, A. (2011). Social statistics for a diverse society (6th ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Wagner, W. E. (2016). Using IBM SPSS Statistics for research methods and social science statistics  (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

## Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
\$26
The price is based on these factors:
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
• Free title page and bibliography
• Unlimited revisions
• Plagiarism-free guarantee
• Money-back guarantee
On-demand options
• Writer’s samples
• Part-by-part delivery
• Overnight delivery
• Copies of used sources
Paper format
• 275 words per page
• 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
• Double line spacing
• Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

# Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

### Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

### Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

### Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.