Who will be your subjects/participants?


Methodology (1 page for the first draft) – The main purpose of this section is to explain the way in which the study will be conducted. It should explicitly explain the methods utilized, and the strategy followed to collect, store and analyze your data. For the purpose of this class the methodology will include a section identifying the main qualitative method utilized, providing a formal definition of the method according to the consulted bibliography.

“Imagine explaining the process to a friend:”

  • Who will be your subjects/participants?
  • What will the data be collected?
  • What will the setting be (virtual for all) and what will be the actual steps taken when collecting data?
  • How will the data analyzed?
  • How will your data be stored and coded for analysis?

Wildfire and Public Health

Black, C, Tesfaigzi, Y, Bassein, A. J & Miller, A. L. (2017). Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue. Journal of Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Wildfires are a common phenomenon globally. In California, wildfires have been rampant due to the climate and geographic position of the state. Scientists and research agencies are investing their resources in establishing the correlation between wildfire and health. The following is an overview of different studies that aim to establish a possible relationship between the two aspects. Black and colleagues carried out a substantive examination of wildfire smoke effects on public health and occupational health. The researchers aimed to develop a multidisciplinary understanding of wildfire effects on human health. They reviewed medical histories of and health seeking behaviors of areas that are at high risk of wildfire. They included California, Australia, San Diego, and Colorado, among many others. The results were compared to periods before and after fire incidences. The results suggested that respondents had small lung volumes after being exposed to wildfire and smoke. This research confirms Jones and colleagues’ findings that wildfires have a negative impact on people’s health.

Finlay, E. S, Moffat, A, Gazzard, R, Baker, D & Murray, V. (2012). Health impacts of wildfires. PLoS Current

Finlay et al. designed a study to assess the existing evidence on wildfire and health effects. The study involved a comprehensive literature review concerning wildfires and associated health impacts. Additional information was collected from the authors’ focus group, and results implied that wildfires have dare consequences to people’s health. For example, wood smoke was found to contain high concentrations of particulate substances that directly affect respiratory, cardiovascular, and psychiatric problems. This research confirms Black et al. and Jones et al. findings.

Jones, G. C, Rappold, G, A, Vargo, J, Cascio, E. W, Kharrazi, M, McNally, & Hishiko, S. (2020). Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and wildfire-related particulate matter during 2015-2017 California wildfires. Journal of the American Heart Association

Jones and colleagues examined the relationship between out of hospital cardiac arrest and California wildfire. The researchers assessed the smoke and particles from the fire and their possible impacts on cardiac arrest. They used a sample size of 5336 respondents in California and stratified the respondents based on age, pathogenesis, and sex. The results suggested that out-of-hospital cardiac arrest increased with the smoke concentration in the air and according to exposure days. The authors recommended that policymakers need to structure a public health policy that can protect the public from wildfires. This research sheds light on my research question that California wildfire negatively affects public health.

Laumbach, J. R. (2019). Clearing the air on personal interventions to reduce exposure to wildfire smoke. Annals of the American Thoracic Society,

Laumbach conducted a literature review to examine the health risks of wildfires and make necessary protective recommendations. The research established that smoke from wildfires contains components like particulate matter, nitrous, and carbon compounds besides other toxic elements. The elements are strongly associated with high asthma risks, chronic pulmonary diseases, respiratory infections, cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality rates. The author recommended evacuations, staying indoors, and wearing gas masks as protective health measures from wildfires. Laumbach research will help answer my research question by offering a comprehensive overview of wildfires and health risks.

Reid, E, C, Brauer, M, Johnston, H. F, Jerrett, M, Balmes, R. J & Elliott, T. C. (2016). Critical review of health impacts of wildfire smoke exposure. Environmental Health Perspective,

Reid et al. assessed the evidence relating to wildfire’s health effects and identified the most vulnerable populations. The authors achieved this through a literature review on wildfires and perinatal health, cardiovascular, respiratory, and mental health. Evidence suggested that the most common impacts of wildfire were on respiratory diseases. A few studies associated wildfires with cardiovascular diseases. However, there is scanty evidence relating that identifies the most vulnerable population.

All the reviewed literature demonstrates a strong correlation between wildfires and negative health impacts. This implies that Californians are at high risk of various diseases related to wildfire. The government should develop a public awareness campaign to help people take protective measures at personal levels.


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